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Explanation of ‘excessive and premature’ CVD mortality in bipolar disorder?

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An early predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been found in young people with bipolar disorder (BD), in new findings that may explain heart disease-related ‘excessive and premature mortality’ in this patient population.

The researchers found that higher scores on the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), a measure of endothelial function, were related to mood severity in patients with higher scores for mania, but not for depression. These results persisted even after accounting for medications, obesity, and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF).

“From a clinical perspective, these findings highlight the potential value of vascular health integration in the assessment and management of youth with BD, and from a scientific perspective, these findings warrant further research focused on the shared biological mechanisms linking the vascular health and mood symptoms of BD,” said senior investigator Benjamin Goldstein MD, PhD, full professor of psychiatry, pharmacology and clinical sciences of psychology, University of Toronto, Canada Medscape Medical News.

The study was published online May 1 in Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

“Excessively present”

BD is associated with “excessive and premature cardiovascular mortality,” and CVD is “excessively present” in BD, exceeding what can be explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors, psychiatric medications, and substance use, the researchers note.

“In adults, more severe mood symptoms increase the risk of future CVD. Our focus on endothelial function has increased due to the fact that CVD is rare in young people, while endothelial dysfunction considered a precursor to CVD can be evaluated in youth,” said Goldstein, who holds the RBC Investments chair in child mental health and developmental psychopathology at the Center for Addiction and Mental Health, where he is director of the Center for Youth Bipolar Disorder.

For this reason, he and his colleagues were “interested in investigating whether endothelial dysfunction was associated with mood symptoms in youth with BD.” Ultimately, the motivation was to “inspire new therapeutic opportunities that could simultaneously improve both cardiovascular and mental health.”

To investigate this question, the researchers studied 209 youth, aged 13 to 20 years (n = 114 with BD and 94 healthy controls [HCs]).

In the BD group, there were 34 BD-euthymia, 36 BD-depressed, and 44 BD-hypomanic/mixed; and within the depression or hypomania/mixed features groups, 72 had clinically significant depression.

Participants had to be free from chronic inflammatory disease, use of medications that could address traditional CVRF, recent infectious disease, or neurological conditions.

Participants’ bipolar symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and family history were assessed. Additionally, they were questioned about treatment, physical and/or sexual abuse, smoking status, and socioeconomic status. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and blood tests to evaluate CVRFs, including C-reactive protein (CRP), were also assessed. RHI was measured by pulse amplitude tonometry, with lower values ​​indicating poorer endothelial function.

Positive effect beneficial?

Compared with HCs, there were fewer white participants in the BD group (78% vs 55%; P<.001). The BD group also had higher Tanner stage development scores (stage 5: 65% vs 35%; P=.03; v=0.21), highest body mass index (BMI; 24.44.6 vs 22.04.2; P<.001; d=0.53) and higher CRP (1,943.99 vs 0.760.86; P=.009; d=0.40).

After controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (f 3.202=4.47; P=.005; P 2 =.06), the researchers found significant between-group differences in RHI.

Post hoc pairwise comparisons showed that RHI was significantly lower in the BD-depressed group than in the HC group (P=.04; d=.4). Furthermore, the BD-hypomanic/mixed group had a significantly higher RHI than the other BD groups and the HC group.

BD-euthymic P = .02; d=.55
BD-depressed P < .001; d=.79
HC P = .04; d=0.55

RHI was associated with higher mania scores (=.26; P=.006), but there was no similar significant association with depression mood scores (=.01; P=.90).

Mood state differences in RHI and the RHI-mania association remained significant in sensitivity analyzes examining the effect of current medication and CVRF use, including lipids, CRP, and blood pressure on RHI.

“We found that youth with BD who experienced a depressive episode had lower endothelial function, while youth with BD who experienced a hypomanic/mixed episode had higher endothelial function, compared with healthy youth,” Goldstein said.

There are several mechanisms potentially underlying the association between endothelial function and hypomania, the researchers note. For example, they report that positive affect is associated with increased endothelial function in normative samples, so hypomanic symptoms, including euphoria, may have similar beneficial associations, although those benefits probably do not extend to mania, which has been associated to cardiovascular risk.

They also point to several limitations in the study. The cross-section design “prevents making inferences about the temporal relationship between RHI and mood.” Additionally, the study only focused on hypomania, so “we can’t draw any conclusions about mania.” Additionally, the HC group had a “significantly higher proportion” of white participants and lower Tanner stage, so “may not be a representative control sample.”

However, the researchers conclude that the study “adds to existing evidence for the potential value of integrating cardiovascular therapeutic approaches in BD,” noting that more research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of the association.

Observable changes in youth

Commenting for Medscape Medical NewsJess G Fiedorowicz, MD, PhD, chief and chief, department of mental health, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Canada, noted that people with BD “have a much higher risk of CVD, which tends to develop earlier and shortens the life expectancy of more than a decade”.

This cardiovascular risk “appears to be acquired over the long-term course of the disease and proportionate to the persistence and severity of mood symptoms, implying that mood syndromes, such as depression and mania, may themselves induce changes in body relevant to CVD,” said Fiedorowicz, who is also a professor in the department of psychiatry, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, and Senior Research Chair in Adult Psychiatry, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Canada, and is not been involved in the study.

The study “adds to a growing body of evidence that mood syndromes can enact physiological changes that may be relevant to CVD risk. An important aspect of this study is that this can also be observed in a sample of young people,” he said.

J Clin psychiatry. Published online May 1, 2023. Full text

This study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and a University of Toronto Miner’s Lamp Innovation Fund. Goldstein and coauthors disclose no relevant financial relationships. Fiedorowicz receives honorarium from Elsevier for his work as editor-in-chief of the Journal of Psychosomatic Research.

Batya Swift Yasgur MA, LSW, is a freelance writer with a consulting firm in Teaneck, New Jersey. She is a regular contributor to numerous medical publications, including Medscape and WebMD, and is the author of numerous consumer-oriented health books, as well as Behind the Burqa: Our Lives in Afghanistan and How We Escaped to Freedom (the memory of two brave Afghan sisters who told her their story).

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#Explanation #excessive #premature #CVD #mortality #bipolar #disorder

Nawazuddin Siddiqui says once again that no one has depression in the villages; Gulshan Devaiah replies, “I wouldn’t take it seriously.”

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Actor Nawazuddin Siddiqui didn’t change his tune when asked if he really meant that depression is an urban concept.

nawazuddin siddiqui raman raghav 2.0Nawazuddin Siddiqui in Raman Raghav 2.0.

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Actor Nawazuddin Siddiquiwho played a mentally ill serial killer in the film Raman Raghav 2.0, doubled down on his recent comments about depression and mental health not existing in rural areas. He said matters like this are an urban concept and went on to suggest that if he claimed to be depressed in his home village, he would be beaten.

He was asked about his controversial comments in a new interview with NDTV. The actor said in Hindi, I was just narrating my experience. It is possible that I am wrong. But even today, if I were to go to my village, which is only three hours away, and say I suffer from depression, I would be slapped. They told me to eat and go to the fields. When asked if he meant that people in rural areas are unaware of these conversations instead of stating that mental health problems don’t exist, the actor said, “It doesn’t exist.” Nobody knows, nobody has depression in the villages. As a matter of fact, go check.

Nawaz continued without providing any medical evidence, you see, in cities, people have a habit of glorifying even the smallest issues. Because they don’t see how people with real problems live their lives. See how they dance on the sidewalks in the rain, why aren’t those people suffering from depression?

In reaction to Nawaz’s latest comments, actor Gulshan Devaiah tweeted, Dritharashtra Syndrome and Gandhari. I respect the man immensely for his craft, but I don’t take him seriously on this matter. If you even look at alcoholism or addictions, they exist in rural communities and that’s a mental illness. No addict indulges in addiction because he loves it. Addiction is a symptom, the real problem is the trauma they fail to heal.

Nawaz had made his original comments in an interview with Mashable India. He said, I’m from a place where if I tell my dad I’m feeling depressed, he’ll slap me Depression waha nahi tha, kisi ko bhi nahi hota waha depression, sab khush hai (No one gets depressed in the villages, everyone is happy there). But I learned about the anxiety, depression, bipolar after I got to town.

The actor is currently promoting his upcoming film Jogira Sara Ra Ra. Recently he has been seen in Afwaah, and is best known for Gangs of Wasseypur and Sacred Games.

IE Online Media Services Pvt Ltd

First published on: 24-05-2023 at 12:38 CEST


#Nawazuddin #Siddiqui #depression #villages #Gulshan #Devaiah #replies #wouldnt

One study suggests that CBD could help preserve fruit

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It has been touted for its ability to treat pain and anxiety and is found in everything from soda to soap. But could CBD also help extend the shelf life of certain foods?

New research suggests it’s possible. A study published this month in Applied materials and ACS interfaces looked at the differences between strawberries that received a CBD treatment and those that didn’t.

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Investigation of CBD’s potential as an antioxidant and antibacterial agent, meanwhile, is still in its early stages. The objectives of the study were to prepare encapsulated cannabidiol isolate (eCBDi), evaluate the effect of eCBDi edible active coatings on the physicochemical properties of strawberries, and determine whether CBD and sodium alginate coatings could be used as post-treatment. harvest to promote antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and extend the shelf life of strawberries, the researchers said in the abstract.

They said that a well-designed edible coating on the surface of the strawberry was achieved by using eCBDi nanoparticles in combination with a sodium alginate polysaccharide solution, and that the strawberries were examined for their visual appearance and quality parameters.

In the results, significantly delayed deterioration was observed in terms of weight loss, total acidity, pH, microbial activity and antioxidant activity for the coated strawberries compared to the control. This study demonstrates the ability of eCBDi nanoparticles as an efficient active food coating agent, the abstract states.

Digital outlet Leafie has more details on the study, which was led by scientists at Thammasat University and the Chulabhorn Research Institute in Thailand.

According to the outlet, the research team combined CBD isolate with biodegradable polymers that are used in drug delivery to create nanoparticles 400 nanometers wide.

These were then mixed with water and the food additive sodium alginate. The researchers dipped the strawberries in the resulting solution, followed by a second bath in ascorbic acid and calcium chloride, which turned the coating into a gel, Leafie reported.

To test the shelf life of the coatings, the team placed treated and untreated strawberries in open plastic containers and stored them at refrigerator temperatures for several weeks. Strawberries treated with CBD decomposed much less in 15 days than those left uncoated, retaining their color and weight for longer. Higher amounts of CBD also appeared to perform better than lower amounts in the test.

It is not the first research to produce such results. As Leafie noted, a 2021 study published in Postharvest Biology and Technology provided for the first time evidence that CBD oil has the potential to reduce microbial load and maintain the visual quality of strawberries, which would lengthen their shelf life. duration.

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of CBD as a post-harvest treatment applied to the surface of strawberries by consumers at home to retard microbial growth and maintain quality, thus prolonging fruit shelf life. This was done by using CBD oil as an edible coating to protect the strawberries from spoiling. Edible coatings have been shown to protect some fruits and vegetables from dying too quickly and succumbing to decay, the researchers wrote at the time.

They stated that the results of their study showed that CBD oil was effective in maintaining the visual appearance of strawberries, above the minimum threshold of a visual assessment score of 3, compared to the fruit that was not treated. .

CBD oil was also found to be effective in reducing the microbial load on treated strawberries compared to untreated fruit. This research shows that CBD oil has the potential to be used by consumers at home as an effective antimicrobial treatment and to extend the shelf life of strawberries, the researchers said.

#study #suggests #CBD #preserve #fruit

The RDs agree: Turmeric water is liquid gold for fighting inflammation

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At Well + Well, we often underline the importance of adequate hydration with passion and emphasis. Research shows that optimal hydration levels are closely linked to longevity, and as we age, our hydration needs tend to equalize Moreover important.

That said, it’s no secret that many enjoy adding extra flavor (not to mention the health benefits) to H2O. What is not to love? One of our favorite ways to give a cup of plain water an extra tasty twist is to make turmeric water, a simple concoction with one of the most potent anti-inflammatory spices. We spoke to a registered dietitian and spice expert who shared how to make turmeric water at home. Ready to stay well hydrated all summer long?

turmeric water benefits from the VAHDAM assortment
Photo: VAHDAM India

Organic Turmeric Herbal Tea Kit, 60 Tea Bags $22.00

Health benefits of turmeric water

Turmeric water is a simple combination of water infused with turmeric, a plant in the ginger family native to Southeast Asia and grown commercially in that region, mostly in India. Notably, the bright orange plant contains curcumin, the main compound in turmeric that has strong anti-inflammatory properties.

Second Ujjwala Baxi, RD, a Registered Dietitian and VAHDAM India Ambassador, Turmeric Water is packed with delicious flavor and health benefits. Turmeric water is rich in antioxidants, which help unlock the body’s ability to reduce inflammation and stave off chronic disease. When stored toxins are cleared out, we’re able to release pain and open up our body’s cellular realm to new nutrients and boost immunity, says Baxi.

To boost the health potential of your turmeric water, try adding a sprinkle of black pepper to your glass, this makes the spice up to 2,000 times anti-inflammatory. Baxi points out that turmeric and fat can work synergistically in the body, too: When turmeric is paired with fats like ghee or oil, it can release flavonoids, an antioxidant compound that can help lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of disease. heart attacks, she says. When whipping up a cup of turmeric water at home, Baxi often adds a few drops of ghee and a pinch of black pepper.

Additionally, Baxi says turmeric water can be consumed at any time of the day. Its wholesomeness can be beneficial in the morning, on an empty stomach, or simply before, during, or after meals, he says.

Because turmeric is considered a sacred spice in India

People have used turmeric for its amazing medicinal properties for centuries. And in some places it even has a special cultural significance. For example, in India, turmeric is used for cooking, but it is also considered a sacred spice. Turmeric is considered a sacred spice and has its place in all Indian auspicious rituals and ceremonies. Golden spice is known to bring prosperity, happiness, good luck and harmony in relationships, all essential virtues for a well-settled family life, says Baxi.

Turmeric is considered a sacred spice and has its place in all Indian auspicious rituals and ceremonies. Golden spice is known to bring prosperity, happiness, good luck and harmony in relationships, all essential virtues for a well-settled family life, says Baxi.

The spice is also used in several Indian savory dishes or as a substitute for expensive saffron in sweet dishes, due to its distinct and vibrant yellow hue. Yellow turmeric root is not only used for curries, biryani and various regional cuisines, but also for making golden milk to boost immunity, says Baxi. And in addition to cooking, you can find turmeric in many skincare products to help brighten and smooth the complexion.

Time to sip. Greetings!

Turmeric water recipe

Makes 1 serving

ingredients
A few drops of clarified butter
1/4 teaspoon turmeric powder
A pinch of black pepper
1 cup of water
A splash of lemon juice

  1. In a small wok over medium-low heat, add a few drops of ghee. Heat the fat and turn off the flame.
  2. Add turmeric powder and black pepper powder. Mix well and add a cup of water.
  3. Boil the water and spice mixture. Once done, add the lemon juice just before consuming the water. Mix well before drinking.

A Registered Dietitian Shares The Benefits Of Consuming Turmeric:


#RDs #agree #Turmeric #water #liquid #gold #fighting #inflammation

Do you want to improve your mental health? Eat your greens.

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Feel down? Forget your usual comfort foods. Try eating your greens instead.

Years of research point out that eating more vegetables is not only good for physical health, but can also improve mental health. It does not take much. Even adding just one more serving of fruit or vegetables to your plate each day can boost your mood. Here are some of the recent discoveries.

  • A 2023 British study associated higher fruit consumption with feelings of relaxation, confidence and energy.
  • A 2022 Australian fruit and vegetable study of more than 4,000 women showed that those who ate at least five servings of vegetables a day had a 19% lower risk of developing depression over a 15-year period than those who ate at most one serving. For fruit, four servings versus one meant 25 percent less likelihood of depression.
  • A meta-analysis of 18 studies found that for every 100 grams of vegetables consumed, the risk of depression decreased by 3%.
  • A study of food diaries found that the mental health benefit of eating more vegetables was equivalent to getting a job after being unemployed.
  • A UK study found that increasing daily consumption of fruit and vegetables by just one serving provides the same estimated increase in mental well-being as eight days of 10-minute walks.

There’s certainly growing evidence that high fruit and vegetable consumption helps mental health, especially anxiety, says Uma Naidoo, a physician and director of nutritional and lifestyle psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Links between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental well-being have been found in countries as diverse as Ghana, India, Russia and China. Also, all the extra plant foods may be the reason vegetarians and vegans tend to be less depressed than omnivores. (Although some studies have shown poorer mental health in vegetarians and vegans, some of them have been funded by the meat industry).

Do happy people eat vegetables or do vegetables make people happy?

Sure, it could just be that happy people gravitate toward carrots over cookies. And healthy eaters might possess some traits that potentially reduce the risk of depression or anxiety, but these questions typically can’t be answered in observational studies.

Now, several randomized control studies conducted in recent years offer further insights and suggest that eating greens actually makes us feel good.

In 2022, Angela De Leon, a nutrition biologist at Indiana University Bloomington, and her colleagues published the results of a study in which they randomized 75 people into two groups. The first group stayed on their regular diet. The second group received weekly deliveries of vegetables, carrots, courgettes, peppers and cabbage, among other items of their choice.

We’ve eliminated some of the cited barriers to vegetable consumption, which are cost, convenience and availability, said De Leon.

To make sure the participants were indeed eating their vegetables, the scientists measured levels of carotenoids in their blood and skin, which are phytochemicals that are a good indicator of fruit and vegetable consumption.

The results showed that after just eight weeks, people in the vegetable delivery group reported feeling noticeably happier than before, and happier than control group members.

Other studies suggest that eating fruits and vegetables can improve mental well-being almost instantly. In a 2021 study published in Psychology & Health, the more people indulged in fruits and vegetables on a given day, the more they said they enjoyed their experiences the next day. This established a virtuous circle, where uplifting emotions led participants to indulge in even healthier foods.

4 Strategies to Eat More Veggies: Start Not Overthinking It

Because vegetables improve your mood

One reason eating greens may boost mental well-being, experts say, is the substitution effect. Loading with plants can leave less room in your stomach for unhealthy foods.

The standard American diet is called SAD for a reason, Naidoo says. Research shows, for example, that high consumption of sweets increases the chances of feeling jittery, panicked, or hopeless.

Mental health benefits may also be due to getting more fiber, which can lead to a healthier microbiome.

The more soluble fiber we have in our diets, the more beneficial gut microbes will thrive, says Stephen Ilardi, a psychologist at the University of Kansas who researches the effects of lifestyle on depression.

The link between mental health and your microbiome

Studies show that gut microbes are key players in depression and anxiety, as the health of your microbiome influences serotonin production and regulates inflammation, both of which play a role in mental health. We have mountains of evidence now that gut microbes are very good at influencing brain and mental function, Ilardi said.

Phytochemicals, which are naturally produced plant compounds, also have profound anti-inflammatory effects, Ilardi said. Research suggests that polyphenols, a type of phytochemical found in high amounts in berries, artichokes, onions, spinach, nuts and seeds, might increase concentrations of serotonin and dopamine, neurotransmitters that help regulate mood and motivation.

A 2020 review of 37 studies showed that polyphenols reduce the risk of depression, while a randomized control trial published in 2023 concluded that drinking flavonoid-rich orange juice, a type of polyphenol, improves symptoms of depression.

The problem, of course, is convincing yourself to stick to a plant-rich diet, instead of reaching for ice cream or sugary treats whenever you’re feeling low. These foods are designed to tap into our cravings, says Naidoo.

Listen to an audio guide on mindful eating

To break unhealthy habits, Naidoo recommends mindful eating, which means paying attention to feelings of hunger, fullness, and the reasons why you want to eat. He also suggests keeping your kitchen stocked with healthy foods and getting rid of foods that aren’t good for you.

Finally, start adding more greens to your meals. De Leon points to research showing that it is through repeated exposure to foods that we begin to like ourselves. To make vegetables more appealing, he recommends watching cooking shows and experimenting with herbs and spices. Any vegetable can be made delicious, he says.

Have a question about healthy eating? E-mail [email protected] and we may answer your question in a future column.

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#improve #mental #health #Eat #greens

Iowa nurse charged with abuse for stealing patient’s oxycodone

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For the second time in 10 years, an Iowa nurse accused of stealing painkillers from patients has had her license suspended by the state.

The Iowa Board of Nursing recently voted to indefinitely suspend the license of Tammie Lynn Illg, 47, of Whittemore, alleging that in October 2022 she stole prescription pain relievers from a patient. The suspension will remain in place until Illg completes a chemical dependency assessment and provides proof of 12 months of sobriety.

Court records indicate that Illg worked as a nurse at the West Bend Health and Rehabilitation Center in Palo Alto County, where, on two different days, she gave a patient Tylenol instead of the man’s prescribed oxycodone and then held for the prescribed drug.

Illg was criminally charged with adult addict abuse and criminal drug diversion. She pleaded guilty to drug diversion charges and a sentencing hearing is scheduled for June 16.

In 2014, the council imposed a license suspension order against Illg after she was convicted of trespassing and possession of a controlled substance. Court records indicate those criminal convictions stemmed from allegations that Illg stole 14 hydrocodone tablets from her workplace at the time, which the council did not identify.

Other recent actions by the Iowa Board of Nursing include:

  • Carine Ayuk of Owings Mills, Md. – The council accused Ayuk of forging license credentials. According to the board, Ayuk applied for a license to the Iowa Board of Nursing three years ago, in May 2020, and she was released a month later. The council now claims that the credentials provided by Ayuk were somehow forged. Ayuk has agreed to surrender her license.
  • Sonia York of Burlington – The board has directed York to complete a three-day virtual course on patient boundaries and professional ethics. The board had accused York of making lewd, suggestive or sexual comments. It is unclear from available public documents to whom the comments were directed. York was charged with the formal offense of making the comments “to a patient”, but council documents indicate that the charge was based on the council’s allegation that she exchanged text communications of a sexual nature “with the son of a patient”.
  • Stephanie Monds of Gray, Ga. – The Iowa Board of Nursing charged Monds, who worked at an unspecified Iowa hospital in 2021 and 2022, with four regulatory violations: misappropriation of patient medications; committing an act that may adversely affect a patient’s physical or psychosocial well-being; violate a patient’s privacy rights; and failing to accurately assess or document a patient’s status. She was accused of giving patients only a portion of the drugs she had obtained for them and then not accounting for the rest of the drug. She has also been accused of obtaining drugs for patients not assigned to her and then “wasting” the drugs by disposing of them. As part of a settlement agreement with the board, Monds agreed to give up his privilege to practice in Iowa. In 2011, the Georgia Board of Nursing was notified that Monds had been fired from her job as a nurse for diverting narcotics for personal use. The Georgia board subsequently placed her license on probation, which she successfully completed.
  • Melaney Thomas of Cedar Rapids — After being accused by the Iowa Board of Nursing of violating patient confidentiality, Thomas was ordered to complete 30 hours of educational training on patient privacy and the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act Thomas was alleged to have accessed the medical records of five family members on multiple occasions while working as a hospital nurse between October 2021 and June 2022.
  • Julianne Redington of Cedar Rapids – The Board of Nursing accused Redington of committing an act that could adversely affect the physical or psychosocial well-being of a patient or client. According to the council, that allegation is based on an allegation that while employed at an unspecified care facility in the fall of 2022, Redington “had inappropriate interaction” with residents, staff or relatives of residents at the the facility in which it was worked. The board did not elaborate on Redington’s alleged conduct. The board ordered her to complete 30 hours of educational training in managing difficult patients.
  • Sarah Bracht-Wagner of Mason City – The Board of Nursing ordered Bracht-Wagner to complete 60 hours of educational training in nursing ethics and procedures after she claimed she performed nursing services outside the authorized scope of practice for her license and therefore falsified documents. The charges stemmed from allegedly giving a patient intravenous drugs that she hadn’t been trained to administer, then falsely documenting that someone else had given the drugs to hide her actions.

This article first appeared in the Iowa Capital Dispatch.

#Iowa #nurse #charged #abuse #stealing #patients #oxycodone

Gut control: Our microbiome’s vitamin factory could redefine personal health

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In a recent study published in PLoS Pathogensresearchers explore the role of the human gut microbiome as a source of essential vitamins.

Study: Can we microbes manage our vitamin intake for better health?  Image Credit: Lallapie/Shutterstock.comStudy: Can we microbially manage our vitamin intake for better health? Image Credit: Lallapie/Shutterstock.com

Production of vitamins by the intestinal microbiota

Vitamins are essential micronutrients required for various metabolic and regulatory processes in all living organisms. Importantly, many vitamins cannot be synthesized by humans; therefore, they must be obtained from external sources.

Within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, many microorganisms can produce vitamins again, some of which include vitamin K and various B vitamins such as niacin, riboflavin and cobalamin. Indeed, recent genome annotation studies have indicated that up to 65% of human gut commensal microorganisms produce at least one type of vitamin B, with some organisms producing all eight and others not involved in again vitamin synthesis. The gut microbiota is also capable of converting dietary vitamin A into its metabolites, which subsequently contribute to immune homeostasis and protection against pathogenic invasion.

Recent estimates indicate that up to 30% of the recommended daily intake of these vitamins is produced by the intestinal microbiota. However, this largely depends on the individual’s dietary habits and microbiome composition.

Vitamins may also exert beneficial effects on the gut microbiota by increasing the number of commensal microorganisms, enhancing microbial diversity, modifying short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels, and regulating barrier function and immune response capabilities. Furthermore, vitamins exhibit antioxidant properties that can protect the host from infectious diseases by directly influencing the immune system or indirectly through their impact on the redox state.

The role of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract

The presence of opportunistic pathogens such as candida albicans in the human gastrointestinal tract can lead to serious and life-threatening invasive disease. Notably, most individuals carry these pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract without experiencing any infection, thus indicating a potentially commensal role of these organisms.

There are various benefits that can be attributed to harboring potential pathogenic species in the gastrointestinal tract. For example, C. albicans has been shown to produce high concentrations of riboflavin; however, the reason for this overproduction remains unclear. Comparatively, other pathogens appear to stimulate neutrophil reactivity, thereby training the immune system to respond to invasive infections.

Probiotics and diet

As research has advanced our understanding of the important role of the microbiome in human health, probiotic foods and supplements have become increasingly popular. Probiotics typically include Lactobacilli, BifidobacteriaOR Saccharomyces species, all capable of producing vitamins again.

Certain dietary habits can also affect vitamin production. High-carbohydrate, low-fat diets, for example, have been linked to increased urinary excretion of riboflavin, thus indicating a potential increase in riboflavin secretion by the microbiota under these conditions.

Vitamin fortification and its impact on human health

The enrichment of food products with vitamins is an approach that has been used to improve the nutritional quality of foods, particularly in high-income countries where diets are often dominated by high-calorie, low-nutrient food products.

In addition to fortified foods, vitamin supplementation is another way people can ensure they are meeting their daily vitamin needs; however, the scientific evidence supporting the benefits of vitamin supplementation is unclear. For example, excessive intake of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E and K can accumulate in adipose tissue, thus leading to adverse health effects.

Additionally, there is some research indicating that the high doses that are often used in oral vitamin supplements can disrupt host-microbiome interactions by altering the competitive or syntrophic interactions between gut microbes. For example, previous live Studies in mice have shown that supplementing with vitamin B12 promotes the colonization and pathogenesis of a specific mouse pathogen known as Citrobacter rodentium interfering with Lachnospiraceae activity.

Conclusions

The study results underscore the importance of the commensal relationship between the gut microbiota and the human host through its role as a source of critical vitamins. Further research is needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of communication between the microbiome and the human host to discern the impact of these microorganisms on human health and potentially identify new therapeutic targets.

#Gut #control #microbiomes #vitamin #factory #redefine #personal #health