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Surprising Ozempic Side Effects You Need To Know About, According To A Doctor


Ozempic’s side effects are getting nearly as much attention as the drug itself (maybe you’ve heard of Ozempic’s face). Intended for those with type 2 diabetes, Ozempic (which lists semaglutide as the main active ingredient) is an injectable drug that helps manage blood sugar. . The drug, which is part of a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) class of drugs, may reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack or death in adults with type 2 diabetes, along with heart and blood vessel disease.

Some patients taking the drug experience side effects while taking the drug. One of the most common side effects of Ozempic is weight loss, although it’s not intended for weight loss, according to its manufacturer, Novo Nordisk. The side effects of Ozempics can make it difficult for patients to maintain their treatment regimen. About 20% of my patients will discontinue use as they have difficulty tolerating Ozempic due to these side effects, she says Florence Comite, MDfounder of the Comite Center for Precision Medicine & Health.

But, for the remaining 80% of Dr. Comites’ patients, the side effects of the medications are much milder. Ahead, find everything you need to know about Ozempic side effects.

Common side effects of Ozempic

The most common side effects of Ozempic result from the slowing of peristalsis (choppy gastrointestinal waves that push contents through the intestines), explains Dr. Comet.

He says common side effects of Ozempic include:

  • Gastrointestinal disturbances (stomach pain)
  • Nausea
  • Reflux
  • Vomit
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Stomach ache

These symptoms occur in most people first, then resolve. However, symptoms can persist in a significant number of individuals, he says, even soon after taking the first dose. Others will see an increase with any increase in dose, which should decrease after taking the drug for two to three weeks.

Dr. Comite says another side effect of Ozempic is loss of muscle mass, which could have negative health implications. Several factors contribute to sarcopenia (muscle wasting), including weight loss, inadequate dietary protein, lack of desire to eat, little or no resistance exercise, or suboptimal hormones, particularly testosterone, he says. Muscle is the fountain of youth because it is vital to your metabolic health, strength, and prevents aging disorders, such as [type 2 diabetes], heart disease, stroke, osteopenia, memory and cognitive decline with advancing age. He says that while taking Ozempic, patients lose fat and muscle unless they take steps to preserve muscle mass by strength training, eating enough protein, and making sure they’re producing enough testosterone. Sufficient testosterone, an essential hormone that begins to decline by 1-3 percent in our 30s, is critical for muscle, she says.

Another side effect that has gotten a lot of attention lately is the Ozempic face, a sagging skin that occurs as a result of weight loss that affects the face. This is not specific to Ozempic, due to any weight loss it will impact facial skin.

Uncommon side effects of Ozempic

While typical side effects skew on the milder side, Novo Nordisk lists a number of Ozempic side effects, including possible thyroid tumors, thyroid cancer, and vision changes.

Dr. Comite also notes: Less common side effects include excess wind or gas in the stomach, belching, heartburn, indigestion, rapid heart rate, low blood sugar, low energy, fatigue, and gallstones.

Uncommon but serious side effects also include:

  • Pancreatitis
  • Appendicitis
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Decreased kidney function
  • Allergic reactions
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Angioedema

If you experience severe or unexpected symptoms, see your prescribing doctor, says Dr. Comet.

Drugs to avoid while taking Ozempic

When in doubt, it is always best to consult your doctor. But there are some drugs that don’t go well with Ozempic. Medications to avoid include insulin and sulfonylureas as they can lower blood sugar levels. Explore with your doctor if you are taking these medications, as they may be changed if Ozempic is an option for you. Careful monitoring is important, says Dr. Comet.

Are there any foods to avoid while taking Ozempic?

In short, no. But there are foods you can forgo to avoid exacerbating Ozempic side effects. No food is off-limits per se while taking Ozempic, but there are foods to avoid, which can aggravate an upset stomach and make it difficult to manage [blood] sugar levels, including fried or fatty foods, sugary foods and beverages, highly processed foods, and refined carbohydrates, explains Dr. Comet. Limit your intake of high-sugar fruits and vegetables and decrease your alcohol consumption. It’s best to maintain a varied diet, rich in protein and unprocessed foods, with no extra sugar.

Can pregnant or breastfeeding women take Ozempic?

Ozempic is not recommended during pregnancy or breastfeeding, as it can potentially affect fetal growth and development, says Dr. Comet. We generally advise our patients to stop Ozempic at least two months before trying to conceive. If you are diabetic, there are alternative medications that are safe to take while pregnant or breastfeeding.

Tips for managing side effects of Ozempic

Trying crackers or pita chips to settle your stomach is a good way to manage an upset stomach, says Dr. Comet. Be sure to drink plenty of water, eat your meals slowly, and use over-the-counter medications like Tums or Gas-X to ease nausea or gas pains. Eating small amounts of food, even when not hungry, can make a difference, she says.

As for muscle loss, Dr. Comite says it comes down to strength training exercises and diet. To avoid muscle loss, he starts each meal with lean proteins, such as chicken, fish, lean beef, tofu, beans, and nuts (walnuts, almonds, cashews, macadamias, brazilians, but not peanuts which are legumes). Protein, the essential building block of muscles, has a more favorable impact on metabolism, he says.

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Emily Goldman is the senior editor of Prevention. She has spent the last few years editing and writing about health, wellness, beauty, food and more for Marthastewart.com and Bridalguide.com. She’s loved all things health and wellness since starting her bi-weekly podcast Pancreas Pals, a series about the ups and downs of life with type 1 diabetes. When she’s not podcasting, she spends most of her time curled up with a good book or watching a period piece on the BBC.

#Surprising #Ozempic #Side #Effects #Doctor

Mounjaro is $1000 a month without coupons; the user fears gaining weight


Tara Rothenhoefer started taking tyrzepatide as part of a weight loss clinical trial and lost 176 pounds on the drug. She now worries about losing access to the drug when a coupon expires in June.
Courtesy of Tara Rothenhoefer

  • Tirzepatide has the potential to be a new weight-loss treatment, but it could be costly for patients.
  • One woman said the drug helped her lose 176 pounds and she fears she will regain it if she can’t afford it.
  • A combination of stigma and lack of insurance coverage can make it difficult for people to access diet drugs.

A new drug has the potential to be even more effective for weight loss than currently trending drugs like Ozempic and Wegovy if patients can access them.

Tirzepatide, a weekly injection currently sold under the brand name Mounjaro, is being studied for itsdramatic effects on appetite and blood sugar control, helping patients lose up to 20 percent of their body weight, on average, in clinical trials.

One of the patients in the first clinical trial, a 47-year-old woman named Tara Rothenhoefer, told Insider she lost a total of 176 pounds on tyrzepatide and that the drug “changed her life.”

To keep it off, she needs to keep taking the medication. But the discount she made available to her will soon expire, forcing her to face an out-of-pocket cost of more than $1,000 a month, or try to maintain her weight without the drug.

“I’m scared shitless. I’d like to think I’ll be able to maintain those habits, but my experience tells me otherwise,” Rothenhoefer said.

Tirzepatide affects hormones that control appetite and may be more effective than Ozempic

Tirzepatide helps with weight loss because it mimics an appetite-reducing hormone called GLP-1. It’s similar to another popular drug called semaglutide (sold under the brand names Wegovy and Ozempic), which also acts on GLP-1 to help people eat less.

Unlike semaglutide, tirzepatide also acts on another insulin-related hormone called GIP. The dual effects may be even more effective at reducing appetite, with some evidence suggesting that tirzepatide causes greater weight loss than semaglutide.

Eli Lilly, the pharmaceutical company that makes tirzepatide, is going through the process of getting FDA approval to market the weight-loss drug. It is currently available as a treatment for diabetes, but doctors can now prescribe it for weight loss as well if they think it will help patients.

A clinical trial patient said tyrzepatide helped her maintain healthy habits during the trial, but she struggled without it

Rothenhoefer joined the tirzepatide weight loss clinical trial in 2020 and lost about 80 pounds in the first six months. She said the drug’s main benefit is reducing “food noise,” a persistent physical and emotional preoccupation with eating.

By the end of the trial, Rothenhoefer was down from 342 pounds to 210, but she lost access to the drug, even though she still wanted to lose more weight.

Despite maintaining the same habits like eating smaller portions, more vegetables and fewer treats, she noticed the scale creeping up again when she stopped taking tirzepatide.

“I never got out of the mindset of having to work for it. I kept telling myself I wanted to eat like normal people eat, but it was a struggle,” she said. “When you’re off drugs, the food noise and hunger come back.”

Before the trial, Rothenhoefer had been on a yo-yo diet since age 13, and now she felt like she was back in that vicious cycle, gaining back 18 pounds in her year off the drug.

Eventually she was able to get a prescription for Mounjaro through an online doctor and the weight started to drop again. Although she is now approaching her goal weight and hopes to maintain it, she fears it will be an uphill battle if she loses access to tyrzepatide.

“I never see myself being the person I was three years ago, but I know it will be a daily struggle for the rest of my life,” Rothenhoefer said.

Rothenhoefer said healthier habits like eating smaller portions and choosing healthier foods helped her lose weight, but it’s hard to maintain them without taking tirzepatide to reduce the “food noise.”
Courtesy of Tara Rothenhoefer

The ongoing stigma towards weight, combined with a lack of insurance coverage, has made patients desperate for medication

Rothenhoefer said its current supply of tyrzepatide is affordable thanks to a manufacturer coupon that drops the price to $25, down from its quoted cost of $1,000 or more per month. But that coupon expires in June.

Most insurance plans don’t cover weight-loss drugs and those that require extensive documentation, obesity medicine specialist and endocrinologist Dr. Scott Isaacs previously told Insider.

“It’s a huge burden to prove that patients are fit for the drug,” he said. “There are a lot of unknowns. We’re doing our best and there’s hope that things will change. I’m very honest with patients, but June worries me.”

Rothenhoefer said the prospect of missing the drug is a hot topic in online forums of people taking the drug, and he routinely sees his peers “freaking out” at being cut off.

“It can get very obsessive, people think ‘I need this, what if I can’t get it’ and sell things or get a second job just to try and afford it,” she said.

For Rothenhoefer, the plan was never to take tyrzepatide long-term (“I don’t even like taking a Tylenol,” she said), but her future without it is still uncertain.

Until then, buy time by ordering the maximum amount available, a four-week supply every three weeks, and stockpiling the extras in the fridge.

“If my electricity went out right now, the first thing I’d do is run and get ice in a cooler,” she said.

#Mounjaro #month #coupons #user #fears #gaining #weight

Study: Smoking weed not linked to COPD


Marijuana smoking is not associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, according to a newly released study.

Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles looked at participants who smoke or have smoked tobacco cigarettes and divided them into three groups: current, former, or never smokers.

The study authors said limited data are available on the impact of marijuana smoking on the development or progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in middle-aged or older adults with a variable history of cigarette smoking.

We compared [current marijuana smokers], [former marijuana smokers] AND [never marijuana smokers]and those with varying amounts of lifetime marijuana use. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to analyze changes in spirometry, symptoms, health status, and radiographic metrics; Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used for exacerbation rates, the research team wrote.

Most participants were followed up for four years or more, according to the researchers, who wrote that incident COPD, respiratory symptoms, health status, radiographic extent of emphysema or air trapping, and exacerbations total or severe were not different between [current marijuana smokers] OR [former marijuana smokers] against [never marijuana smokers] or among those with any amount of lifelong marijuana use against [never marijuana smokers].

In their final analysis, the researchers wrote: In a 20 pack-year cohort of habitual tobacco smokers with established COPD or at risk of developing COPD followed for an average of more than 4 years, a current and/or previous smoking history of marijuana of any cumulative amount over the lifetime was not associated with a significantly deleterious impact on COPD progression. Among tobacco smokers in the same COPD-free cohort at enrollment, self-reported current and/or previous marijuana smoking, including heavy marijuana smoking, was not associated with an increased risk of subsequently developing COPD. However, in light of the limitations of our studies and previously published results that conflict with our findings, further studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up duration specifically designed to evaluate this issue are needed. for a better understanding of the potential long-term effects of smoking marijuana in people with or at risk of developing COPD.

NORML Deputy Director Paul Armentano touted the findings of the UCLA study, which was published this month in Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

These findings are consistent with decades of data that have found that cannabis smoke exposure is not associated with the same kind of deleterious lung impact as tobacco smoke exposure, Armentano said. They should be reassuring for both cannabis users and healthcare professionals, and should help guide future policies with respect to creating evidence-based public health messages and associated regulations.

NORML noted that the findings are consistent with those of previous studies which concluded that inhaling cannabis, even over the long term, is not positively associated with COPD, lung cancer or irreversible airway damage, and added that the Use of vaporization technology, which heats budding cannabis to a set temperature below the flash point, is associated with reduced exposure to toxic gases and has been identified as a safe and effective cannabis delivery device in clinical trial.

In one of the studies cited by NORML, researchers from Great Britain in 2018 said that the available literature does not support an association between exposure to cannabis smoke and the occurrence of COPD, emphysema, lung cancer, shortness of breath or irreversible airway damage, although they identified a link between inhaling marijuana and more frequent coughing, sputum production, wheezing, and chronic bronchitis, although they acknowledged that these symptoms largely cease after you quit .

The long-term respiratory effects of cannabis differ from traditional smoking, the researchers wrote, as cited by NORML. [C]annabis smoke does not appear to be carcinogenic.

#Study #Smoking #weed #linked #COPD

Scientists discover chemical that could help heal nerve damage A potential breakthrough for patients with paralysis


Updated May 24, 2023, 1:29 pm EDT

Top line

Scientists have discovered a new chemical that could help heal nerve damage, according to research published Wednesday in the journal Naturewhich offers initial hope for one day to reverse the paralysis and lost functioning that can result from nerve injury.

Main aspects

The compound, named 1938, was created after scientists at University College London, the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, and pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca examined thousands of molecules in the company’s chemical library looking for those that could activate the biological keys. mechanisms that control cells

Roger Williams, a senior author on the study from the MRC LMB, said the chemical works by activating one of the molecular machines that control how our cells function and are the targets of many different drugs.

Specifically, 1938 works by activating an enzyme, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), which governs cell growth, is involved in various processes such as wound healing, and can also be hijacked by cancer cells to help them grow.

Nerve cell growth increased significantly when 1938 was added to lab-grown nerve cells, the researchers said, and tests in nerve-injured rats showed increased recovery and restoration of some motor functions, suggesting a degree of nerve regeneration.

Early animal research also showed that the compound protects against heart damage following traumatic events such as a heart attack, which usually result in areas of dead tissue forming that can cause problems later in life even after blood flow has been restored. .

James Phillips, professor in UCL’s School of Pharmacy and senior author of the study, said there is huge potential for drugs that can activate PI3K to speed up nerve regeneration as there are currently no approved drugs to regenerate nerves, which may be damaged as a result of injury or illness.

What to watch

While there are cancer drugs that block the PI3K pathway to hamper tumor growth, the researchers said the mechanism’s clinical potential has not been explored to its full potential. Encouraged by the positive results, the team said it is working on developing new therapies to treat peripheral nerve damage, such as that sustained in severe hand and arm injuries. They are also looking into other ways that PI3K-activating drugs could treat other types of nerve damage, including that from spinal cord injuries, strokes and neurodegenerative diseases. The results are promising, particularly for a range of often debilitating problems for which there are no approved treatments, but they are preliminary and a large amount of research will be needed to bring them into clinical practice.

Key background

Nerve cells, often called neurons, are specialized cells that carry messages throughout the body. Distributed like a series of electrical wires, they allow different parts of the body to communicate and are central to virtually everything a person does, including moving, speaking, feeling and thinking. Unlike many other parts of the body and unlike some animals, types of salamanders, fish and frogs, we cannot easily repair injured neurons or regenerate lost ones. Nerve-damaging injuries, such as from car accidents, sports injuries, or anything like a stroke or heart attack that constricts blood, can be permanent and potentially devastating, although recovery is possible, at least in part. Paralysis, muscle weakness, numbness, and pain are all possible consequences of nerve damage.


Regeneration is one way scientists are trying to help people with nerve damage. Another way, pursued by the likes of Elon Musks Neuralink and the implant company Synchron, looks to connecting the human brain with computers to help restore function lost to nerve damage.

Further reading

Elon Musk hopes to test a brain implant in humans next year (NYT)

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#Scientists #discover #chemical #heal #nerve #damage #potential #breakthrough #patients #paralysis

FDA approves Yuflyma as Adalimumab’s ninth biosimilar


The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the biosimilar adalimumab-aaty (Yuflyma) in a highly concentrated citrate-free formulation, the manufacturer, Celltrion USA, announced today. It is the ninth biosimilar of adalimumab (Humira) to be approved in the United States.

Yuflyma is approved for the treatment of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative colitis, plaque psoriasis and hidradenitis suppurativa. It is also approved for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis for patients 2 years of age and older, as well as Crohn’s disease in adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older.

The formulation was approved based on a comprehensive data package of analytical, preclinical and clinical studies, according to Celltrion USA, “demonstrating that Yuflyma is comparable to the reference product Humira in terms of efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity up to 24 weeks and 1 year after treatment.”

The FDA also conducted a double-blind, randomized Phase 3 study comparing switching from reference adalimumab to Yuflyma versus continuing on reference adalimumab or Yuflyma for patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. In that study, the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety, and immunogenicity of Yuflyma and reference adalimumab were comparable after 1 year of treatment, even after switching from reference adalimumab to Yuflyma.

“Currently, more than 80 percent of Humira-treated patients in the United States rely on a high-concentration, citrate-free formulation of this drug. The availability of a high-concentration, citrate-free formulation biosimilar adalimumab provides an important treatment option for patients with inflammatory diseases who benefit from this effective therapy,” said Jonathan Kay, MD, of the University of Massachusetts, Worcester, in the news release.

The citrate-free formulation is believed to lead to less pain during injection.

Yuflyma will be available in pre-filled syringe and auto-injector delivery options.

Celltrion USA expects to market the drug in the United States in July 2023. Following the initial launch of 40 mg/0.4 mL, Celltrion USA plans to launch 80 mg/0.8 mL and 20 mg/0.2 mL dosage forms ml.

The company is also seeking an interchangeability designation from the FDA following the completion of an interchangeability study of 366 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. The interchangeability designation would mean that patients successfully switched from Humira to Yuflyma multiple times during the study. The interchangeability designation would allow pharmacists to automatically substitute Humira for Yuflyma. In these cases, individual state laws control how and if doctors will be notified of this step.

If interchangeability is approved for Yuflyma, which the company tentatively expects in the fourth quarter of 2024, it would be only the third FDA-approved interchangeable biosimilar overall and the second adalimumab biosimilar to be designated as such, after adalimumab-adbm (Cyltezo) in the October 2021.

Yuflyma was approved in Canada in December 2021 for 10 indications: rheumatoid arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, adult Crohn’s disease, adult ulcerative colitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, plaque psoriasis, uveitis of adult and pediatric uveitis.

In February 2022, the European Commission granted marketing authorization for Yuflyma for these 10 indications, as well as for non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis, pediatric plaque psoriasis and pediatric Crohn’s disease.

In April 2022, Celltrion USA signed a licensing deal with AbbVie, the maker of Humira. Under this agreement, Celltrion USA will pay royalties to AbbVie on sales of its individual biosimilars, and AbbVie has agreed to drop all patent litigation.

Full prescribing information for Yuflyma is available here.

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#FDA #approves #Yuflyma #Adalimumabs #ninth #biosimilar

Dupilumab is the first investigational biologic to significantly improve lung function in COPD patients


Dupilumab (Dupixent; Sanofi) is the first and only investigational biologic to significantly improve lung function at 12 and 52 weeks and significantly reduce severe acute exacerbations compared with placebo in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to the authors. presented a positive Phase 3 best outcome at the 2023 American Thoracic Society (ATS) International Conference.

Inhaler technique counseling is essential to help patients with COPD get the most out of their therapy. Credit: peterschreiber.media – stock.adobe.com.

The results that were published in the New England Journal of Medicineshowed that dupilumab met the study’s primary endpoint of the annual rate of acute moderate or severe COPD exacerbations. Specifically, the results showed that the treatment reduced exacerbations by 30% over 52 weeks.

“I have seen patients with uncontrolled problems [COPD] struggle for too long with the debilitating symptoms of this progressive disease with limited and incremental improvements over current treatment options, said co-principal investigator Surya Bhatt, MD, MSPh, Birmingham Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama, in a recent press release.

COPD is a life-threatening respiratory disease that damages the lungs, leading to a decline in lung function that can lead to hospitalization or death. Estimates suggest that 300,000 people in the United States have uncontrolled COPD with evidence of type 2 inflammation.

Recurrent exacerbations, which include symptoms of dyspnea and persistent cough, are treated with systemic corticosteroids, and the disease is associated with a significant health and economic burden. Smoking can be a significant risk factor for COPD, and those who have quit are also at a higher risk. Investigators are currently conducting a COPD program evaluated in 2 clinical trials to evaluate dupilumab for patients with uncontrolled COPD who received standard of care (SoC).

BOREAS is the first of the tests; is a randomized, Phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dupilumab in 939 adults who were smokers or ex-smokers with moderate to severe COPD and evidence (blood eosinophils of 300 cells/L) of type 2 inflammation. During the BOREAS study, 468 patients were randomized to the dupixent arm and 471 to the placebo arm.

For 52 weeks, patients received dupilumab or placebo every 2 weeks along with the maximal inhaled SoC triplet, which includes inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta agonists, and long-acting muscarinic antagonists.

Compared with placebo, dupilumab significantly reduced exacerbations at 52 weeks (30% reduction). Additionally, patients experienced improvement in lung function at 12 weeks from baseline, with improvement persisting at 52 weeks. Patients also experienced improvements in health-related quality of life at 4 weeks and a reduction in the severity of respiratory symptoms at 52 weeks.

Dupilumab has helped improve measures of health-related quality of life, which, from my years of experience as a physician, are as meaningful to patients as being able to breathe easier, Bhatt said in the news release.

The overall safety profile of dupilumab was consistent with previous findings; Seventy-seven percent of patients experienced adverse events (AEs), the most common including headache (8.1%), diarrhea (5.3%) and back pain (5.1%). Both dupilumab and placebo had similar adverse events leading to 1.7% and 1.5% death, respectively.

Dupilumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that can inhibit the signaling pathways that drive type 2 inflammation. It is already approved in some countries for the treatment of atopic dermatitis and asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, esophagitis eosinophilic and nodular prurigo.

This study demonstrated that dupilumab has the potential to influence the vicious cycle of exacerbations and lung function decline in uncontrolled COPD patients with type 2 inflammation and significantly improve respiratory symptoms, Bhatt said in the news release.


Sanofi. Press Release: Dupixent (dupilumab) Late Phase 3 COPD Results Presented at ATS and Simultaneously Published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Press release. May 21, 2023. Accessed May 23, 2023. https://www.sanofi.com/en/media-room/press-releases/2023/2023-05-21-18-17-12-2672904

#Dupilumab #investigational #biologic #significantly #improve #lung #function #COPD #patients

Cortisol responsiveness could alter stress-induced snacking behaviors


Cortisol responsiveness and eating styles play a key role in the relationship between daily stress and eating behavior, according to new research published in Psychoneuroendocrinology. The findings suggest that people’s physiological responses to stress may influence their food choices and habits.

“It is known that many people eat more unhealthy foods when they experience stress and this can be detrimental to their health in the long run,” said study author Daryl O’Connor, a professor at the University of Leeds and head of the Laboratory for Stress and Health Research.

“However, less is known about the complex relationship between stress and nutrition in adolescents and young adults. Therefore, in this study we wanted to investigate the types of stressors associated with unhealthy snacking and explore the role of the key stress hormone cortisol in understanding who might be more vulnerable to stress-induced eating.

The study included a total of 123 participants, recruited from local colleges and universities. Of these, 59 participants were adolescents (aged 16 to 18) and 64 participants were young adults.

Participants completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants were tested in groups and asked to prepare a speech to convince a group of experts why they are the best candidates for a hypothetical job. They were also given a serial subtraction task. These tasks were designed to induce a subjective, neuroendocrine stress response.

Saliva samples were collected from the participants at four different time points before and after the stress task to measure cortisol levels. Samples were frozen to preserve stability, and cortisol levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.

The samples were used to assess cortisol responsiveness, which refers to how the hormone responds to stress or challenging situations. Cortisol is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress and plays a role in regulating metabolism, immune function and other processes.

Next, participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included demographic information and eating styles measured using the Dutch Eating Behaviors Questionnaire (DEBQ). The questionnaire was used to assess restricted, emotional, and external eating behaviors.

Participants were then asked to complete online daily diaries for 14 consecutive days following test day. They recorded the daily stressors they experienced and the between-meal snacks they consumed. The researchers collected 1,196 individual journal entries.

Participants reported experiencing an average of 1.63 stressors per day, with work/academic stressors being the most common, followed by physical stressors. The researchers found that daily reported stress was positively associated with daily snacking, but not fruit and vegetable intake.

“Daily stressors are associated with greater unhealthy eating in adolescents and young adults. Therefore, it’s important to be aware that small daily stressors, as well as larger stressors, can trigger eating high in fatty foods,” O’Connor told PsyPost.

Emotional and external eating styles both influenced the relationship between reported daily stress and total snack intake. Emotional eating intensified the impact of stress on snacking, with higher levels of emotional eating corresponding to a stronger relationship between stress and snacking. A similar pattern was observed for external eating style.

“Adolescents and young adults who are higher in the eating style traits known as emotional eating (i.e., having a tendency to eat more when anxious and upset) and external eating (i.e., having a tendency to eat in response to external triggers such as smelling and seeing visual cues) are more likely to eat unhealthy foods on days when they experience daily stressors,” O’Connor explained.

Interestingly, the researchers also found that stress was associated with increased snacking intake among individuals with low and moderate levels of cortisol responsiveness, but this association was not seen in individuals with high levels of cortisol responsiveness. cortisol.

Those with high levels of cortisol responsiveness ate a similar number of snacks on both low- and high-stress days. This suggests that in people who have a strong stress response, any stressor, regardless of its severity, can affect their eating habits.

“Individual differences in the amount of cortisol release in response to stressors (in the laboratory) have been associated with stress-induced eating,” O’Connor told PsyPost.

The researchers recommend exploring other aspects of the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is involved in the body’s stress response, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying stress-related eating.

“Future research should continue to investigate associations of eating stress in adolescents and young adults and see if these effects carry over into adulthood and explore the implications for overweight and obesity in the future,” O’Connor said. . “We should also explore the effects of different aspects of our cortisol profiles (for example, the levels of cortisol we release when we wake up in the morning and throughout the day, not just in response to stress) and see if they’re also related to stress.” related food vulnerability.

The study, “Daily Stress and Eating Behaviors in Adolescents and Young Adults: Investigating the Role of Cortisol Responsiveness and Eating Styles,” was written by Deborah Hill, Mark Conner, Matt Bristow, and Daryl B. O’Connor.

#Cortisol #responsiveness #alter #stressinduced #snacking #behaviors